Download Advances in Parasitology, Vol. 3 by Ben Dawes (ed.) PDF

By Ben Dawes (ed.)

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Vivax and T. congolense occurred commonly, T. brucei only rarely; in the Reduncinae all three species occurred commonly but T. vivax predominated; in the Tragelaphinae, T. congolense was by far the most frequent and the two others were comparatively rare. The incidence of any given species found, however, is affected by the methods of investigation used. Godfrey and Killick-Kendrick (1962) examined 145 dromedaries in Northern Nigeria for T. evansi; 12% were found infected by the examination of thick blood films, 28% by inoculation of blood into rats.

The best estimate of the risk of acquiring infection was concluded to be direct catches on exposed grazing cattle. In studies of the hunger stages of flies, it was found that individual workers differed markedly in their assessments so that experimental designs must allow for such bias to be discounted. The proportion of hungry flies in catches of males on various oxen were all similar but varied widely among catches in traps which appeared identical structurally. Further experimentation on the influence of frequency of emptying, of the size of the entry slot, of deficiencies in their closing, and of predation, on the performance of traps, failed to explain the variation between them.

Trager considered that the success of the cultures was related to their being incubated at that temperature rather than the usual one of 28” C. Very profuse trypanosome multiplication was obtained and the insect tissue appeared to be unharmed by the presence of the organisms. Trager made several attempts to infect sheep with the culture trypanosomes and succeeded on two occasions, with trypanosomes which had been maintained in vitro for 39 and 16 days, respectively. The infected cultures were held for 19 h at 38” C just before being inoculated into sheep; both the infective cultures showed exceptional activity after this treatment.

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