By Peter van Oosterom, Sisi Zlatanova, Friso Penninga, Elfriede Fendel
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Additional info for Advances in 3D Geoinformation Systems (Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography)
6 Simple Solid: invalid if modeled as outer, inner surfaces. e. shaded area) of the inner solid boundary is partly shared with the back face of the outer solid boundary Fig. 7 Invalid composite solid because solid elements cannot be inside the other. If modeled as a simple solid, the object will be invalid as it has two outer boundaries (which are disconnected) valid geometry. The geometry, however, can be modeled as a (heterogeneous) collection. 2 Composite Solid in Oracle In addition to a simple solid, Oracle (and GML too) also allows the speciﬁcation of a ’composite solid’.
Other properties are also likewise preserved. In Figure 6, simple solid has an outer boundary represented by a closed composite surface and a hole (Hole) represented by an inner composite surface. These two solids share a face. This solid is invalid since it violates the inner-outer disjointedness rule of a simple solid. However, this solid can be modeled as a valid simple solid represented by a single outer composite surface without any inner surfaces (solid with dent). The composite-solid in Figure 7 is composed of Solid 1 and Solid 2.
This model and validation rules have been implemented in the Oracle 11g database (the implementation details have not been included due to space restrictions). The rules that are more involved to implement are the Closedness test and the Reachability/Connectedness tests. Full details on our implementation of these tests are available in [Oracle07]. Future work could concentrate on performance evaluation of the 3D data model, validation and query on large-scale city models. Speciﬁc optimizations based on 3D query window sizes [KR01] could be investigated.