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By Takashi Kojima

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Extra resources for Advanced abacus: Japanese theory and practice

Sample text

In equation A, 882 is the dividend, 2 is the complementary number, and 9 is the quotient. In equation B, 100 is the divisor. Now, multiplying the 2 on A by the trial quotient figure 9, add the product 18 to the 82 on EF. This gives you 900 on DEF. Since the divisor 98 is a two-whole-digit number, the unit rod of the quotient is formed on D. The answer is 9 on D (Fig. 113). EXAMPLE 2: 8 160 / 96 = 85 STEP 1: Set the dividend 8 160 on DEFG, and set on A, 4, which is the complement of 96 with respect to 100 (Fig.

5, the unit rod of the quotient forms on the first rod to the left of that of the dividend. 095, the unit rod of the quotient forms on the first rod to the right of that of the dividend. Rule 2 may be restated as follows: 38 Advanced Abacus Japanese Theory and Practice, by Takashi Kojima RULE 2: The unit rod of the quotient forms on the rod immediately to the left of that of the dividend by as many rods as there are whole digits in the divisor. The unit rod of the quotient forms on the rod immediately to the right of that of the dividend by as many rods as there are zeros before the first significant decimal figure.

As you cannot subtract 49 Advanced Abacus Japanese Theory and Practice, by Takashi Kojima 19 from the 15 on EF, borrow 1 from rod C. Subtracting 19 from 20, add 1 to the 15 on EF. This gives you 16 on EF and 99 on BC (Fig. 159). STEP 4: As you cannot subtract 10 from the 8 on I, borrow 1 from the 16 on EF, and subtracting 10 from 12, add the result 2 to the 8 on I. This gives you 10 on HI and 15 on EF (Fig. 160). STEP 5: Now add 26 to the 99 on BC, and you get 125 on ABC. Add 2 to the 15 on EF, leaving 17 on EF.

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