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By W. Tatarkiewicz

The historical past of aesthetics, just like the histories of different sciences, will be taken care of in a two-fold demeanour: because the background of the lads who created the sector of research, or because the background of the questions which were raised and resolved during its pursuit. the sooner background of Aesthetics (3 volumes, 1960-68, English-language variation 1970-74) through the writer of the current booklet was once a historical past of fellows, of writers and artists who in centuries previous have spoken up bearing on good looks and artwork, shape and crea­ tivity. the current ebook returns to an identical topic, yet treats it differently: because the heritage of aesthetic questions, innovations, theories. the problem of the 2 books, the former and the current, is partly an analogous; yet basically partly: for the sooner e-book ended with the seventeenth century, whereas the current one brings the topic as much as our personal occasions. And from the 18th century to the twentieth a lot occurred in aesthetics; it used to be basically in that interval that aesthetics accomplished acceptance as a separate technological know-how, obtained a reputation of its personal, and produced theories that early students and artists had by no means dreamed of.

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The position remains unaltered when for 'form' we substitute 'shape' or 'structure'. Everything that exists has some sort of shape, structure or form; therefore shape, structure or form as such cannot be the distinguishing feature of art. We have to look for some particular shape, structure or form. Some artists and theorists say that art is concerned with pure form. Pure or, as it is sometimes called, intrinsic form is one that is independent of its representational or any other function, standing and speaking, as it were, by itself.

Photographs are clearly just as much products of a machine as of man. But art is supposed to be an exclusively human activity resulting in purely human products. Later the same doubts appeared with regard to cinematography. 24 2. I. ART Leonardo da Vinci, Bodily proportions corresponding to simple geometric figures. Venice, Collections of the Academy. THE SCOPE OF ART 25 Even earlier than that there were doubts about the status of landscape gardening, which is just as much a product of nature as of man.

79). In it he distinguished a certain group of arts and opposed them to the crafts on yet another basis. The crafts produce things needed by man, while arts such as painting, sculpture and poetry serve, so he thought, only to preserve things and events in memory. For that reason he called them 'arti commemorative della memoria'. They had a somewhat different scope than the 'musical' or the 'noble' arts; for example, they did not take in architecture. Nevertheless, Castelvetro's idea holds a place in the history of the concept of art no less significant than those of Ficino and Capriano.

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