By Daniel C. Snell
A better half to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and common readers a entire evaluate of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians areas specific emphasis on social and cultural historical past Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and sleek worlds presents an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of research
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Extra info for A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World)
Even Nippur, Umma, and other southern sites may have learned ‘‘stateness’’ from Uruk. Nature of the State Most visions of the Mesopotamian state involve centralized control and vertical hierarchy (Adams 1966, 1981; Adams and Nissen 1972; Wright and Johnson 1975; Wright 1977; Nissen 1988). Focus is on the material evidence of elites and 28 Augusta McMahon of state economic administration – public buildings and art, seals, bullae (clay tags), and tablets which recorded movement of goods, and mass-produced pottery.
The empire was organized in small provinces with no possibility for ‘‘feudal’’ fragmentation, and the celebrative apparatus of both texts and images proliferated. The borders of the empire were extended farther under Shalmaneser V (726–722), Sargon II (721–705), and Sennacherib (704–681), but in different ways in various directions. In the West, the Levant was almost completely annexed except for a few minor and marginal vassal kingdoms like Judah. In Anatolia, the Neo-Hittite kingdoms were also annexed, while Sargon’s attempt to conquer the central plateau (Tabal, the later Cappadocia) was short-lived.
FURTHER READING The standard historical treatment of the Ancient Near East is Edwards, Gadd, and Hammond 1971–92. A recent synthesis of the subject can be found in Kuhrt 1995. On Mesopotamia proper, the best introduction remains Oppenheim 1977. For a thematic introduction see Sasson 1995. For more technical discussions see Ebeling et al. 1928–. For historical geography and maps see Ro¨llig 1977–. More synthetic is Roaf 1990. A good collection of sources is Pritchard 1975. CHAPTER TWO From Sedentism to States, 10,000–3000 BCE Augusta McMahon The first sedentary communities in the Near East appeared about 10,000 B C E , and by 3000 B C E we find urbanized complex societies.