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Automatic video parsing using shot boundary detection and camera operation analysis. Pattern Recognition, 34(3), 711-719. , & Vincent, N. (2000). Real time temporal segmentation of compressed and uncompressed dynamic colour image sequences. International Workshop on Real Time Image Sequence Analysis, 56-62. , & Vincent, N. (2003). A review of real-time segmentation of uncompressed video sequences for content-based search and retrieval. Real-Time Imaging, 9(1), 73-98. Lienhart, R. (1999). Comparison of automatic shot boundary detection algorithms.

From the MPEG coding, the blocks contained in the I-frames are all intra-coded. But the blocks in the P-frames and B-frames are of various types. P-frames contain both intra-coded as well as forwardpredicted blocks. B-frames are more complicated as they can contain any combination of forward-predicted, backward-predicted, bi-directional predicted, intra-coded, and/or skipped blocks. The number and the ratios between the various types of blocks can give some indication of changes and motion continuity (Yi, Rajan, & Chia, 2006), hence, helps in detecting shot-boundaries.

Most blocks within those P- and B-frames include the DCT coefficients of the residual error resulting from the motion compensation. The DCT coefficients are representatives of the frame contents. In fact, the DC coefficients alone represent a low-resolution, or iconic, version of the image and are considered as an iconic version of the image. Hence, most of the pixel-based and histogram-based techniques could be applied for shot-boundary detection. , 2004). The feature vector contains standard deviation and color histogram intersection of the YUV color space components, as well as other information about the various types of macro-blocks and the type of the frame.

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